On Wednesday, the agency voted 3-2 to auction spectrum in the 2.5GHz band. This sliver of airwaves, known as the Educational Broadband Service, had been set aside for educational purposes during the 1960s. License holders had to be either educational institutions or nonprofits supporting education. These entities, which have gotten access to the spectrum for free, can lease the spectrum to wireless carriers. Sprint uses leased spectrum in the 2.5GHz band for its existing 4G network and these leases are a key reason why T-Mobile proposed spending $26 billion to buy the company, so it could use this so-called midband spectrum to build a 5G service.
The FCC voted to change the rules for the spectrum and is planning to auction unused or underused spectrum in the band directly to wireless carriers. FCC Chairman Ajit Pai called the vote “a major step toward freeing up critical midband spectrum for 5G.”
— A whopping eight witnesses, including representatives for the FCC, NTIA and other officials involved in the fight over prime 5G airwaves known as the C-band, are set to testify this morning before the House Energy and Commerce telecom subcommittee. (Read all their written testimony here). A reminder: Satellite companies, which currently occupy the C-band, want the FCC to let them sell the spectrum privately, while Google, cable and wireless players, as well as some on Capitol Hill, are pushing for an FCC-run auction that they argue would provide more public interest benefits.
— We’re watching for what subcommittee chairman Mike Doyle (D-Pa.) says about his new spectrum draft bill now circulating among industry players. “The goal is to free up spectrum for the wireless industry, so we can deploy 5G,” Doyle told John, adding that lawmakers need to ensure “the money from that spectrum benefits American taxpayers and becomes a source of funding for broadband deployment in rural and underserved areas.” [Emphasis Added]
A question many people may ask when discussing 5G network technology.
With the exponential growth in the ways and means by which people need to communicate data communications, voice communications, video communications, broadcast messaging, command and control communications, emergency response communications, etc. – modifying radio devices easily and cost-effectively has become business critical. Software-defined radio
(SDR) technology brings the flexibility, cost efficiency and power to drive communications forward, with wide-reaching benefits realized by service providers and product developers through to end users.
[. . .]
Simply put Software Defined Radio is defined as
: “Radio in which some or all of the physical layer functions are software defined”
A radio is any kind of device that wirelessly transmits or receives signals in the radio frequency
(RF) part of the electromagnetic spectrum to facilitate the transfer of information. In today’s world, radios exist in a multitude of items such as cell phones, computers, car door openers, vehicles, and televisions.
Traditional hardware-based radio devices limit cross-functionality and can only be modified through physical intervention. This results in higher production costs and minimal flexibility in supporting multiple waveform standards. By contrast, software-defined radio technology provides an efficient and comparatively inexpensive solution to this problem, allowing multimode, multi-band and/or multi-functional wireless devices that can be enhanced using software upgrades.
Most 5G cell site radios are SDR devices. These software devices provide the operator the ability to define multiple networks for performing different tasks, low latency network for real-time control, a plethora of connections for IoT devices, and wide bandwidth for big data applications. Virtual software-defined networks will also manage the data flow between devices. Antenna beams will also be formed by software. Think of a 5G mini-cell as specialized computers in a plastic pizza box connected to power and a network data source.
Here is one without the Pizza Box Cover and Antenna array:
In his Brooking paper 5G in five (not so) easy pieces, Tom Wheeler former FCC Chairman identified several hidden issues. One of those issues was antenna siting.
There is an inherent tension between the right of localities to make zoning decisions and the impact of those rights on a national infrastructure like 5G. There has always been a stress between wireless network infrastructure and not-in-my-back-yard (NIMBY) concerns.
[ . . .]
The issue of antenna siting has been further complicated as some states have sued to overturn the FCC’s order. While states like Texas and Florida have passed legislation embracing the concepts, 25 others, including California and New York, have rejected the idea. The impasse has prompted two U.S. senators, John Thune (R-S.D.) and Brian Schatz (D-Hawaii) to introduce federal legislation establishing standards for public review of antenna siting. It is an issue that must be resolved, but in order to be resolved must rise above winner-take-all outcomes.
The number of antenna or small cells will be determined by the frequency spectrum used. Where mmWave (24 GHz to 38 GHz) will require a small cell on every city block or at 24 GHz about ever 224 meters.
Mid-band, often referred to as Sub 6GHz spectrum is typical 3.1GHz to 4.2 GHz, needs to have a small cell about every 1000 meters.
To help visualize what that means geographically, I developed a grid map with a radius of about 224 meters and about 1000 meters and overlaid them on the Grass Valley and Nevada City Spheres of Influence.
Low-band (600-700 MHz) can use existing towers with coverage measured in miles. Sprint is using portions of its assigned 4G spectrum 2.5-2.7 GHz for 5G service using existing large towers.
Which would you refer in your neighborhood, high-band mmWave at awesome speeds [20-30 Gbps] or mid-band at reasonable speeds [100 Mbps]?
I have added links to the fiber-optic network providers in Sierra Nevada Counties in the provider’s column on the right side of the page. One caveat, VAST only sells access to corporations or established business. See this post on how individuals have joined to form a non-profit corporation and build a DIY community network serviced by
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Chairman Ajit Pai is expected to introduce a regulatory order in August that would require more reporting data from broadband carriers to increase the accuracy of the national broadband coverage map. Over the last several months, the FCC has faced scrutiny over the accuracy of the national broadband map, which is used by federal agencies to determine areas that lack reliable broadband coverage.
Democrats and Republicans have criticized the FCC for relying on data reported by nationwide carriers that appears to overstate the availability of internet access in some areas.
The House Agriculture Subcommittee on Commodity Exchanges, Energy, and Credit held a hearing this week on “Building Opportunity in Rural America through Affordable, Reliable and High-Speed Broadband.” During his opening remarks, Subcommittee Chairman David Scott (D-Georgia) urged FCC Chairman Pai to allow stakeholders from rural America to play a role in the rulemaking process. The FCC is scheduled to invest billions of dollars in rural broadband over the next several years and Chairman Scott suggested rural areas should be involved in the process.
The question is, how many years will pass before the Broadband Maps are brought up to date? You cannot fix a problem with money unless you know where the problem is!
Tom Wheeler a former FCC Commission Chairman has a long discussion of the 5G issues and related technologies at Brookings. His paper is adapted from a presentation made at the request of the Government Accountability Office.
Download paper HERE. Read this paper and you will up to speed on the top 5G issues.